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Mgnrega:问题和意义 - 解释,省略

Introduction

去的vernment of India has been running the world’s largest employment guarantee program since 2005 under the Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA). It has been in implementation for more than 15 years and has delivered optimum results. Although some issues thwart its success which must be resolved.

关于MGNREGA
  • It guarantees 100 days of work a year to every rural household with an aim to enhance the livelihood security of people.
  • The National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 introduced the scheme. In 2010, NREGA renamed as MGNREGA
  • The Act currently covers all districts except for those that have a 100% urban population.
  • 农村发展部(MRD)与国家政府联合联合监督该计划的执行情况。
mgnregs的主要特征
  1. 需求计划: Worker will get the work whenever he demands and not when the Government has work available.
  2. Employment Allowance:Gram Panchayat has the mandate toprovide employment within 15 days of a workapplication. If it fails, the worker will get an失业津贴
  3. Timely Payment:支付工作完成后15天内的工资。如有失败,工人将获得每天赚取0.05%的工资延迟补偿。
  4. Women empowerment:最低限度三分之一的工人应该是女性
  5. 最低限度wages:工资支付应根据1948年的最低工资法为国家的农业劳动者。
  6. Gram Sabhas进行社会审计,使社区能够监控该计划的实施。
  7. 中心和各国共享该计划的资金。
Performance of MGNREGA so far
  • It has generated more than 31 billion person-days of employment in the last 15 years.
  • 去的vernment has spent over Rs 6.4 lakh crore in the last 15 years on this demand-driven program.
  • 自2006年以来,该国农村地区创建了超过3000万水资源保护资产。

Performance of MGNREGA during Covid-19 Pandemic:

  • According to the government data, over11亿卢比人在mgnregs下工作仅在财政年度2020-21期间。去年的少数计划的其他成就是,
    • 自2006 - 07年以来,这是自2006-07以来第一次,MGNREGS编号在一年内越过11亿克标志。
    • Further, the 11 crore mark is also higher by about 41.75% if we compare 2019-20 data (about 7.88 crores worked).
    • In 2020-21, the total expenditure was 62.31% higher than in 2019-20.
    • 作为经济缔约年经济缔约群的一部分,政府宣布额外的40,000亿卢比的额外资金,以至于2020-21的预算拨款。
Significance of MGNREGA
  • Rural Development: The programme mandates that at least 60 percent of the works undertaken must be related to land and water conservation. The creation of these productive assets boost rural incomes as the majority of villages are agrarian.
    • 例如,在MGNREGA的Madhya Pradesh的Barmani村,Mgnrega创造了水资源保护资产。所以internal migrantswent home started resuming farming and stayed there after the situation turns normal.
  • Tackling Water Stress:在Mgnrega下建造的水资源保护结构在过去的15年里潜在地保存了至少28,74100万立方米的水。这是解决接近水分压力的巨大成就。
  • Curtailing Distress Migration: The scheme provides support in times of distress and individuals are not forced to migrate into cities.
    • 例如,遇险迁移已经在Andhra Pradesh的Ananthapuramu区的Bandlapalli村停了下来,今天是干旱的村庄。
  • Women Empowerment: This is a natural result of employing women to 1/3rd of all MGNREGA jobs.
    • Eg – MGNREGA has led to the formation of the country’s largest group of trained women well-diggers in Pookkottukavu village of Kerala’s Palakkad district.
  • 争夺不确定性:该计划向数百万移民和其他人失去的人提供了令人愤怒livelihood in the pandemic times。该计划确保脆弱的获得基本收入的访问,从而降低了该国的自杀率。
  • Community Assets:The scheme has led to the创造普通社区资产。These assets are built by communities on common lands therebycreating a sense of responsibility朝来导致更好地照顾的结构。
    • For instance, many Johads (percolation ponds) had remained abandoned for several years in many villages of Haryana. However, villagers revived them under the MGNREGA.
Issues with MGNREGA
  • Data on the impact of productive assets:去的vernment does not monitor whether a structure has actually helped water conservation. Further, there is no government data on the impact on groundwater levels, improvements in livelihoods etc. post the creation of assets.
  • 维护不佳:Many structures created under MGNREGA become defunct due to poor maintenance. This simply implies the wastage of time, energy, and resources.
  • 资金不足:大流行时期,对Mgnrega作品的需求巨大飙升。但政府没有以类似的比例正式分配资金。
    • 卢比。为2021-22年分配了73,000亿卢比。它大于卢比的原始分配。2020-21的61,500卢比。但这比修订估计为1,11,500亿卢比,这34.5%。
  • 支持不足: With the unemployment rate reaching a 45-year high at 6%, giving merely 100 days of employment is not sufficient.
Suggestions to improve the MGNREGA
  • 村庄必须从同胞村的成功中学习。在这方面,每个Panchayat都应在裁军和实施MGNREGA下实施强制性五年计划的同时谨慎。
  • 去的vernment must now measure the potential outcome from the assets created under MGNREGA. For this, it must track the impact of water harvesting structures in terms of local land and water resources.
  • For constant monitoring and maintenance of water work, the government can get the support of communities and civil society organizations like thePaani Foundation
  • Adequate facilities such as soap, water, and masks, etc. must be provided free of cost to workers during the pandemic.
  • 政府应为该计划的正确执行提供更大的资金。它目前提供了0.47%的GDPthe World Bank recommends1.7%为了程序的最佳功能。
  • 去的vernment can enhance the number of days to 150-200 days depending on the vulnerability in a particular state.
    • The states can increase it as done byOtisha和Himachal Pradeshwhich have added 50 days and made it 150 days in a year
Conclusion

去的vernment must fill the lacunas in MGNREGA. The government can then see a variety of benefits such as: vulnerable section gets due relief, villages get productive assets, the burden on cities will get reduced etc. Apart from that, it will also fulfil the constitutional duty under Article 41 (Right to work in certain cases).

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