印度需要专注于普遍的社会福利

Synopsis:

大流行暴露了印度的脆弱性Universal social welfare。该国未能为大流行时期的边缘化提供足够的社会福利服务。这需要重点关注普遍的社会福利。

Background:
  • The Covid-19 pandemic struck the country in 2020 and brutally impacted the lives of the Indian masses especially the marginalized community.
  • The pandemic followed a series of crises including mass inter and intra-migration, food insecurity, and crumbling health infrastructure.
  • This has induced some experts to demand universal social welfare from the government.

What is Universal Social Welfare / Social Security?

  • According to the International Labour Organisation, Social security is the protection that society provides to individuals and households:
    • 确保获得医疗保健和保证收入安全;特别是在情况下s of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, etc.
  • Giving such protection to every individual in the country is called Universal Social Welfare.
需要普遍的社会福利:
  • Vulnerability of masses:大流行增强了群众的脆弱性:
      • It has pushed an estimated 75 million people into poverty.
      • The second wave has shown even money is not enough to access health care services. It has brought even the middle and upper-class citizens to their knees.
  • Poor performance of SocialWelfare schemes:The country has over 500 direct benefit transfer schemes but still many weren’t able to get desired benefits during the pandemic.
      • The schemes arefractionalized across various departments and sub-schemes。这会导致计划从数据收集到最后一次交付的每个阶段的问题。
  • 更好的结果: India’s Pulse Polio Universal Immunisation Programme helped it to become polio-free in 2014. This shows the country has the potential to run universal programs and achieve better results.
  • Avoiding Inclusion/Exclusion errors:Universal system will encompass every individual and household in the country thereby tackling the problem of inclusion/exclusion.
    • For instance, PDS can be linked to a universal identification card such as the Aadhaar or voter card, in the absence of a ration card.
    • This would allow anyone who is in need of foodgrains to access these schemes especially the migrant populations.
  • 改善生活水平: Access to education, maternity benefits, disability benefits, etc. social benefits would ensure a better standard of living for the people.
前进:
  • The government should映射国家和中央方案in a consolidated manner. This would avoid duplication, inclusion, and exclusion errors in delivering welfare services.
    • For instance,Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(PMGKY) can be strengthened into universal social security.
    • It already consolidates the public distribution system (PDS), the provision of gas cylinders, and wages for the MGNREGA.
  • It mustcompute the costs of delivering universal social services。Post computation, robust steps must be taken to arrange the requisite amount.
  • The country can learn from successful global models likeIreland’s Poor Law System
    • The system was introduced in the 19th century to provide relief to the masses. It was financed by local property taxes.
    • The system was built keeping in mind the future economic crisis and dignity of the masses.
    • It has now evolved into a four-fold apparatus. It promises social insurance, social assistance, universal schemes, and extra benefits/supplements.
  • There must be afocus on data digitization, data-driven decision-making, and collaboration across government departments. This would improve the implementation potential.

来源:印度教