大流行暴露了印度的脆弱性Universal social welfare。该国未能为大流行时期的边缘化提供足够的社会福利服务。这需要重点关注普遍的社会福利。
- The Covid-19 pandemic struck the country in 2020 and brutally impacted the lives of the Indian masses especially the marginalized community.
- The pandemic followed a series of crises including mass inter and intra-migration, food insecurity, and crumbling health infrastructure.
- This has induced some experts to demand universal social welfare from the government.
What is Universal Social Welfare / Social Security?
- According to the International Labour Organisation, Social security is the protection that society provides to individuals and households:
- 确保获得医疗保健和保证收入安全;特别是在情况下s of old age, unemployment, sickness, invalidity, etc.
- Giving such protection to every individual in the country is called Universal Social Welfare.
- Vulnerability of masses：大流行增强了群众的脆弱性：
- It has pushed an estimated 75 million people into poverty.
- The second wave has shown even money is not enough to access health care services. It has brought even the middle and upper-class citizens to their knees.
- Poor performance of SocialWelfare schemes:The country has over 500 direct benefit transfer schemes but still many weren’t able to get desired benefits during the pandemic.
- The schemes arefractionalized across various departments and sub-schemes。这会导致计划从数据收集到最后一次交付的每个阶段的问题。
- 更好的结果: India’s Pulse Polio Universal Immunisation Programme helped it to become polio-free in 2014. This shows the country has the potential to run universal programs and achieve better results.
- Avoiding Inclusion/Exclusion errors:Universal system will encompass every individual and household in the country thereby tackling the problem of inclusion/exclusion.
- For instance, PDS can be linked to a universal identification card such as the Aadhaar or voter card, in the absence of a ration card.
- This would allow anyone who is in need of foodgrains to access these schemes especially the migrant populations.
- 改善生活水平: Access to education, maternity benefits, disability benefits, etc. social benefits would ensure a better standard of living for the people.
- The government should映射国家和中央方案in a consolidated manner. This would avoid duplication, inclusion, and exclusion errors in delivering welfare services.
- For instance,Pradhan Mantri Garib Kalyan Yojana(PMGKY) can be strengthened into universal social security.
- It already consolidates the public distribution system (PDS), the provision of gas cylinders, and wages for the MGNREGA.
- It mustcompute the costs of delivering universal social services。Post computation, robust steps must be taken to arrange the requisite amount.
- The country can learn from successful global models likeIreland’s Poor Law System。
- The system was introduced in the 19th century to provide relief to the masses. It was financed by local property taxes.
- The system was built keeping in mind the future economic crisis and dignity of the masses.
- It has now evolved into a four-fold apparatus. It promises social insurance, social assistance, universal schemes, and extra benefits/supplements.
- There must be afocus on data digitization, data-driven decision-making, and collaboration across government departments. This would improve the implementation potential.