India at the UN – challenges, significance and way forward

Indiaatthechallenges-InformanAceandwayforward.

This article is based on the recent Indian Express article印度在Un High表。
Context

最近印度已经当选为非常任理事国的联合国安理会对8th时间。

联合国是人类历史上存在的最强大的国际组织。193年联合国成员参加并贡献了他们的一部分,使联合国成为一个真正的全球组织。印度作为一个国家和成员参加过联合国的贡献。

关于联合国(资源)

  • The name “United Nations”, was coined by then US President Franklin D. Roosevelt in the Declaration during the peace declaration of Second World War, where the representatives of 26 nations pledged their Governments to continue fighting together against global challenges.
  • As an International Organization, The United Nations was founded in 1945.
  • “联合国宪章”归属的权力有助于联合国采取行动,如和平,安全,气候变化,可持续发展,人权,裁军,恐怖主义,人道主义和健康紧急情况,全球治理,粮食生产等各种全球问题采取行动。等等
  • The Six major organs of UN are
  1. UN General Assembly (UNGA)
  2. 联合国安理会(UNSC)
  3. 经济及社会理事会(UN ECOSOC)
  4. 国际法院(ICJ)
  5. UN Secretariat
  6. 托管理事会

All the six were established in 1945 during the formation of the UN.

  • Under the UN Charter, the Security Council has primary responsibility for the maintenance of international peace and security. The UNSC has 15 Members of which 5 are permanent members (China, France, Russia, UK, and the U.S.) and other 10 are non-permanent members elected for 2 year terms. Each Member has one vote and the permanent members have Veto Powers.
印度参与联合国的历史:

India is afounding member of UN。印度于1945年签署了联合国宪章。自独立以来,印度在联合国的参与是巨大而且非常值得称道的。参与可以分为3个阶段。

    1. During Cold war period (1947 to 1990)
    2. 印度经济改革十年(1990-2000)
    3. The phase of New India (Since 2000’s)

在冷战期间(1947年至1990年):

    • 1950年至51年,印度是联邦调查局总统,印度主持通过关于在朝鲜战争期间停止敌对行动的决议以及协助大韩民国的决议。
    • In 1967-68, India co-sponsored a Resolution for extending the mandate of the UN mission in Cyprus.
    • In 1977-78, India was a strong supporter of Africa and spoke against apartheid, and also raise concerns for the independence of Namibia.
    • In 1984-85, India was leading supporter in the UNSC for the resolution of conflicts in the Middle East, especially Palestine and Lebanon.

印度经济改革十年(1990-1992):

    • 1996年,印度在日本的手中遭遇了羞辱的失败,在1996年的非常任理事国席位。
    • 印度坚持不懈地延伸Non-Proliferation Treaty(NPT)1995年,并拒绝了采用的后门介绍综合试验禁令条约(CTBT)in 1996
    • 目的是为法律框架提供全面的法律框架,1996年举行了关于国际恐怖主义(CCIT)的全面公约草案。

The phase of New India (Since 2000’s)

印度的经济政策和全球化加强了印度的作用和联合国谈判权力。

    • 逐渐印度成为发展中国家,维持和平,反恐的强烈声音,以及对非洲国家问题的担忧。
    • 在2011-12学期期间,印度主持了一个关于反恐的联邦调查局,一个有关恐怖行为和安全理事会委员会关于索马里和厄立特里亚的安全理事会和安全威胁的工作组。
    • India worked closely with its supporters in the UNSC and in May 2019 India succeeded in placing Pakistan-based terrorist Masood Azhar under the UNSC’s 1267 Sanctions Committee concerning al-Qaida and ISIS and associated individuals and entities, The action which was pending since 2009.
印度对联合国的意义:
    • 首先,印度是3rdlargest economyin terms of GDP (PPP) and the 2nd most populous nation.
    • 其次,印度是一个创始成员联合国,印度一直是8岁的非常任理事国th术语和一个member of other international structures如MTCR,Wassenaar排列等。
    • Thirdly,India enjoys the backing of major powersincluding four permanent members other than China and also the African Union, Latin America, Middle Eastern countries, and other LDCs from different parts of the globe.
    • 第四,印度为维持和平特派团提供了大量的士兵,
    • Fifthly, India is aresponsible nuclear nation,这已经说明了一个明确的禁止初用政策and also followed the same in spirit and soul.
    • Sixthly, India’s success in space technology is another point for its candidature.
    • 最后,印度一直是负责任的权力,它对巴基斯坦,也门,南苏丹和南亚各国等各个国家等各个国家的全球和平努力和人道主义和救灾措施产生了重大贡献。

Read Also :UPSC时事

联合国对印度有什么挑战?
  • Firstly,中国因素: China does not want India and Japan to join the UNSC as permanent members. China is against India for reasons such as
    • 论跨境恐怖主义问题,中国继续保护巴基斯坦。
    • China tried to get the UNSC to focus on India’s constitutional changes in Kashmir.
    • China uses India’s non-membership in the Nuclear Proliferation Treaty (NPT) and Nuclear Suppliers Group (NSG) as the reasons to deny India’s entry into UNSC.
  • 其次,Challenge to multilateralism– There is a rift between the permanent members of the Security Council. For example,
    • China has stepped in to take advantage of the West’s retreat from multilateralism and China is also flouting international law and order.
    • Brexit表明民族主义仍然是欧洲的强大因素。
    • 最近在美国的政变和右翼政治的全球浪潮未能在关键问题上达成共识。
  • Thirdly,在某一方面的变化当代地缘政治现实:The global power matrix has moved towards multilateralism but the UNSC and UN’s power matrix concentrated on select countries.
  • Fourthly,国家的代表性:远东亚洲,南美洲,非洲的地区在理事会的常驻地会员中没有任何代表,可以推动联合国水平的改革。
印度的解决方案是什么?
    • 首先,使联合国有效。印度需要为自己铺设一个更大的房间,并试图培养美国和苏联对核扩散的合作氛围。
    • 其次,making the UN more representative.印度应与巴西,德国和日本建立伙伴关系的努力(G4国家),扩大UNSC。
    • 第三,印度必须应对中国日益增长的敌意:通过呈现关于跨境恐怖主义问题的真实事实及克什米尔的宪法变迁。
    • 第四,印度应与非洲国家更新其联系:60%的UNSC文件和70%的决议是关于非洲的和平与安全。因此,在双边,区域和全球各级,印度有机会深化非洲的和平与安全问题。
    • Fifthly, P5 has to be realistic:联合国委员会的常任理事国必须接受目前的世界挑战和多层次合作的重要性,特别是Covid-19大流行暴露了故障线条,需要多边集体解决方案。
Way forward:

联合国不应该仅仅是一个机构,它也是instrument for positive change. But the UN as an institution for conflict resolution has not developed as desired and India along with other nations should try to reform the UN structure.

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