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Increasing Gender Gap in India

Synopsis:Various factual estimates on Women highlights India’s disregard for Women and the increasing Gender gap in India.

Background
  • India slips 28 spots on the 2021Global Gender Gap indexreleased byWorld Economic Forum.
  • Currently, India ranks140thrank among 156 countries. In 2020, India’s rank was 112th among 153 countries on the index.
  • India was the 3rd worst performer in South Asia, after Afghanistan and Pakistan. Whereas Bangladesh topped the list in the South Asia region.
为什么印度的排名从140降至112thin 2021?
  • Declining political participation:the share of women ministers has declined sharply from 23 to 9 percent.
  • Declining labour force:Indian women’s labor force participation declined from 34.1 per cent in 1999-00 to 21 per cent in 2020.
  • Increasing crime against women:According to the国家犯罪记录局data, nearly 88 rapes occurred daily in 2019, with Dalit women being more vulnerable.
  • Arbitrary use of State power to curtail women’s participation in social movements:For instance, arrest and sedition charges against Disha Ravi, Nodeep Kaur, Hidme Markam.

What are the other reasons for the increasing gender gap in India?

  • Son meta preference:As per UNFPA estimates, each year India loses more than 46 million “missing women” due to misuse of ultrasound technology for sex-selective abortion.
  • Glass ceiling effect: Barriers for women to reach higher positions in corporates and public sector companies. India has only 15 percent of women as a board of directors.
  • Lack of educational opportunities due to Increase in Child marriages:According toNational Family Health Survey 2020, reveals that child marriages have increased since the previous survey in 2015-16.
  • Sexual harassment in the workplace:for example,the MeToo movement hasexposed the vulnerabilities of women in workplaces.
  • Weak enforcement of laws:Crèches are legally mandatory in all offices with more than 50 employees and MNREGA worksites.However, in practice, they hardly exist.
  • Unpaid care work:As per the2019 NSSO time-use survey, Indian women’s daily work is almost 10 times more than men’s on unpaid domestic chores.
  • Gender Digital divide:Though more than half of women have a mobile phone, only a third have access to the internet.
  • Increase in domestic violence:due to lack of economic independence

Other countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Rwanda are making serious efforts to close the Gender gap. Meanwhile, India’s effort in this direction is poor. India needs to understand that Economic growth is not possible without the empowerment of women. The East Asian growth “miracle” was associated with large increases in the working women population.

Source:Indian Express

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