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Factly :-News Articles For UPSC Prelims | 27 Apr, 2021

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Article wise list of factly articles


“Exercise VARUNA 2021” – Indian and French Navy Conducted the 19th Edition

有什么新鲜事吗?

这19th edition of the Indian and French Navy bilateral exercise VARUNA-2021’ was conducted in the Arabian Sea.

About Exercise Varuna:

  • Exercise Varuna 2021is a bilateral naval exercise between India and France.
  • 发起:这exercise was initiated in 1993. Since 2001, the exercises are called ‘VARUNA’.
  • 目标:在两条海军之间开发互操作性。此外,它旨在通过彼此的最佳实践来促进相互合作来进行联合行动。
  • 参与:来自印度海军的侧面,以下一个支柱和潜艇参加了练习。
    • 指导导弹隐形驱逐舰加尔各答
    • Guided-missile frigates Tarkash and Talwar,
    • Kalvari class submarine and
    • P8I Long Range Maritime Patrol Aircraft

Other Exercises between India and France:

  • Exercise Garuda:这是印度和法国空军之间的双边运动。第一版练习于2003年举行。
  • 锻炼shakti:这是印度和法国之间进行的两年军事运动。它是2011年第一次进行的。
  • Exercise La Pérouse:它is a multilateral maritime exercise led by the French Navy. Indian Navy has participated in this exercise for the first time in 2021.

来源:空气


“网络犯罪志愿者计划” - 没有维持的志愿者列表

有什么新鲜事吗?

联盟家庭部has said that it does not maintain a centralised list of volunteers enrolled under the cybercrime volunteer programme. The ministry also said that it is because the police is a “State subject” under the 7th Schedule of the Constitution.

问题是什么?

  • A信息法案(RTI)的权利提出了了解网络犯罪志愿者计划下应用的志愿者总数。
  • 但是联盟家庭部replied to claim for such information directly to the respective States and Union Territories. As it does not maintain a centralised list of volunteers enrolled under the cybercrime volunteer programme.
  • 此外,该部说“警察”和“公共秩序”是宪法第七个时间表中的国家科目。因此,国家主要负责通过执法机构(租赁)预防,检测和调查犯罪。

关于网络犯罪志愿者计划:

  • 民政事务部发起了网络犯罪的志愿者项目
  • 这programme aimsto bring together citizens to contribute to the fight against cybercrime in the country. The scheme also aims to assist State/UT in their endeavour to curb cybercrimes.
  • 根据该计划,公民可以将自己注册为网络犯罪志愿者。他们将帮助执法机构识别,报告和删除非法/非法在线内容。
  • 这programis a constituent of the National Cybercrime Ecosystem Management Unit. This unit is in turn a part of the Indian Cyber Crime Coordination Centre(I4C) scheme.

Click Here to Read more about Cyber Volunteers Programme

Concerns against the Programme:

  • Firstly,Culture of Surveillance:互联网自由基金会(IFF),数字权利集团表示,该计划能够进行监控。IFF还提到该计划可以通过鼓励平民报告其他公民的在线活动来创造潜在的社会不信任。
  • 第二,滥用的机会: There is no information available on how the Ministry will ensure that the program is not misused to extract misguided personal or political vendettas.

来源:印度教


CSIR-CMERI本质开发了“氧气浓缩技术”

有什么新鲜事吗?

CSIR-CMERI与MSME.-DI has indigenously developed Oxygen Enrichment Technology.

About Oxygen Enrichment Technology:

  • 是一种通过选择性地除去氮以供应富氧空气来将氧气从空气中浓缩氧气的装置。
  • 这concentrated Oxygen通过氧气面膜或鼻腔套管递送给患者,患有呼吸系统疾病。
  • 用途:
    • 该装置可用于慢性阻塞性肺病(COPD),慢性低氧血症和肺水肿患者的偏远地点,房屋或医院的设施。
    • 它可以用作严重睡眠呼吸暂停的辅助治疗。

CSIR-CMERI开发的氧气浓缩技术的主要特点:

  • 该单位的原则工作of Pressure Swing Adsorption(PSA). It utilizes Zeolite Columns to selectively remove nitrogen from air under certain pressure thereby increasing the Oxygen Concentration.
  • 这unitis capable of delivering medical air in the range of up to 15 Litres Per Minute(LPM) with oxygen purity of more than 90%. If required, this unit can even deliver up to 70 LPM at a purity of around 30%. It is way better in comparison to other commercially available devices.
  • 这commercially available Oxygen Enrichment Units generally work till 8000 ft from sea level. However, this unit can work up to the altitude of 14000 ft thereby making it very handy for usage at the high altitude terrain battlefield in contingencies.

笔记:压力摆动吸附(PSA)是大气空气通过内部过滤系统的方法(例如,分子筛α〜沸石颗粒或膜])。该系统具有足够大的总表面积,以将氮气(N2)与浓缩氧(O2)分离为已知纯度的空气。

来源:PIB.


“Project Dantak”在不丹完成了60年

有什么新鲜事吗?

Project Dantak.is commemorating its Diamond Jubilee i.e 60 years in Bhutan.

About Project DANTAK

  • Project Dantak.was established in 1961 under the leadership of the Third King of Bhutan and then Indian Prime Minister Jawahar Lal Nehru.
  • Objective:建立了在不丹发展道路,电信网络和其他与此类地标基础设施相关项目的目标。
  • Nodal Agency:边境道路组织(兄弟)

项目的主要成果:

  • Project Dantak.在1968年完成了将Samdrup Jongkhar连接到Trashigang的道路。在同年,Thomphu与Phuentshthing相连。
  • 项目执行的其他一些值得注意的项目include the construction of Paro Airport, Yonphula Airfield, Thimphu – Trashigang Highway, Telecommunication & Hydro Power Infrastructure, Sherubtse College, Kanglung and India House Estate.
  • 这medical and education facilitiesestablished by DANTAK in far-flung areas were often the first in those locations
  • 更多,该项目还沿着道路建立了食品网点。这famous Takthi Canteen midwaybetween Phuentsholing and Thimphu is a compulsory stop for travellers.

来源:PIB.


印度3rd Highest Military Spender in 2020: SIPRI

有什么新鲜事吗?

斯德哥尔摩国际和平研究所(SIPRI)发布了一份题为“Trends in World Military Expenditure Report, 2020”.该报告提供与2020年各国的军事开支有关的数据。

笔记:SIPRIis an independent international institute established in 1966 in Stockholm, Sweden. Its functions are to research into conflict, armaments, arms control, and disarmament.

与印度有关的主要发现:

  • 印度was the 3rd largest military spenderin the world in 2020 behind only the US and China.
  • 印度’s military expenditurewas $72.9 billion in 2020. This is an increase of 2.1% since the year 2019.
  • 印度的军事支出格罗斯的2.9%吗s Domestic Product(GDP).
  • 印度占了为全球军队花费的3.7%。

Other Key Findings:

  • 世界军事开支was $1981 billion in 2020. It is an increase of 2.6% compared to 2019.
    • 由于Covid-19大流行的经济影响,当全球GDP萎缩的速度超过4.4%,在一年的时候,军事支出的增加发生了4.4%。
  • Total military spendingaccounted for 2.4% of global gross domestic product (GDP) in 2020.
  • 2020年的五大消费者were the United States, China, India, Russia, and the United Kingdom. These countries together accounted for 62% of world military spending.
  • 美国占全球军队所花费的39%的钱。2020年,它在2019年增加了7.78亿美元的军队,同比增长4.4%。
  • 虽然,中国核算在2020年的军队上,在全球范围内的13%的资金,在2020年,在2019年增加了1.9%的增加。
  • Likewise, the other top military spendersinclude Russia with $61.7 billion, the UK at $59.2 billion, Saudi Arabia at $57.5 billion, followed by Germany and France at just under $53 billion each.
  • 从2011年到2020年,US military expenditure dropped by 10%. But China saw a 76% growth while India’s military spending grew by 34%.

来源:印度n Express


“Glolitter Partnerships项目” - 30个国家加入了解决海洋垃圾的倡议

  1. 有什么新鲜事吗?Around 30 Countries from across the oceans have joined the GloLitter Partnerships Project to tackle marine plastic litter

Glolitter Partnerships项目:

  • Glolitter Partnerships项目was launched by the International Maritime Organization(IMO) and the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations(FAO). The Government of Norway provided initial funding for the project.
  • 目标:这project aims to help the maritime transport and fishing sectors to adapt to a low-plastic future. To achieve this goal, this initiative will assist developing countries to apply best practices for prevention, reduction, and control of marine plastic litter from those sectors.
  • 参与国家:30个国家将参加该项目。印度是参与国家之一
  • Significance:
    • 该项目将促进遵守自愿指南MARPOL Convention.它contains regulations against discharging plastics into the sea.
    • 更多,protecting the marine environment is also the objective ofSustainable Development Goal(SDG) 14

关于Marpol:

  • 防止船舶污染(Marpol)的国际公约是主要的国际公约之一。它旨在通过运营或意外原因的船舶预防海洋环境的污染。
  • Adopted in:“公约”由国际海事组织(IMO)于1973年11月2日通过。
  • 印度is a signatory to the MARPOL Convention.
  • 附件:这convention currently includes six technical Annexes:
    1. 附件一: Regulations for the Prevention of Pollution by Oil
    2. 附件二:Regulations for the Control of Pollution by Noxious Liquid Substances in Bulk
    3. 附件三: Prevention of Pollution by Harmful Substances Carried by Sea in Packaged Form
    4. 附件四世: Prevention of Pollution by Sewage from Ships
    5. Annex V:Prevention of Pollution by Garbage from Ships
    6. Annex VI:防止船舶的空气污染。

关于国际海事组织(IMO):

  • International Maritime Organization(IMO)is a specialized agency of the United Nations founded in 1948.
  • Purpose:IMO负责提高国际航运安全和安全性的措施,并防止船舶污染。
  • 总部: 伦敦,英国

来源:IMO.


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