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事实:-NEWS upsc prelims的文章|2021年4月26日

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What is “Breakthrough Infection”?

What is the News?

联盟卫生部表示,对于Covaxin和Covishield疫苗来说,突破性感染率低。

What is it?

  • Breakthrough infection是一种疾病的病例,其中接种疫苗的个体因施用疫苗的同类疾病而生病。
  • Simply,it occurs when vaccines fail to provide immunity against the pathogen they are designed to target.

突破感染的可能原因:

  • India’s healthcare and frontline workers在第一阶段期间占用的优先事项列表。它们始终容易发生更职业暴露于冠状病毒疾病。
  • The second wave of Covid-19是高度传递的,它也可能导致突破性感染率。

India’s Breakthrough Infections Data:

  • Covishield:After the first dose two per 10,000 people get reinfected and after the second dose, three per 10,000 people get reinfected.
  • Covaxin:After the first dose four per 10,000 people get reinfected after the number remains the same for the second dose too.
  • This type of Infections are mostly mild or asymptomatic because the individuals still have partial protection.

担心:

  • According to a US study,没有症状的人传播所有案件的一半以上。这意味着控制来自没有症状的人的这种无声传播对于控制大流行非常重要。
  • Hence, it is very possible that anasymptomatic breakthrough infection可以导致社区进一步传播该疾病。
  • This happens especially becausepeople may become careless following vaccinationand many such infections are asymptomatic.

Source:印度教


What are “Oxygen concentrators” and how are they different from Oxygen cylinders?

What is the News?

Currently, Oxygen concentrators are in much demand for oxygen therapy. Demand is high especially among patients in home isolation and for hospitals running out of oxygen.

关于氧气浓缩器:

  • Oxygen Concentratoris a medical device. It filters oxygen from the atmosphere and helps individuals inhale it through a mask or cannula.

如何does it work?

  • Atmospheric air has about 78% nitrogen and 21% oxygen with other gases making up the remaining 1%.
  • 聚光器采用这种大气空气,通过筛子过滤。此外,它将氮气释放回空气,并适用于剩余的氧气。
  • This oxygen compressed and dispensed through a cannula, is 90-95% pure.
  • 浓缩器中的压力阀有助于调节供应,从1-10升每分钟氧气。

如何is it different from oxygen cylinders and LMO?

  • The oxygen cylindergives you a finite amount of oxygen. When the cylinder is empty, it needs to be refilled. Whereas the concentrator pulls oxygen from the air. So it can provide a consistent supply of oxygen, and it only needs a power source to draw in Atmospheric air.
  • Oxygen Concentratorsare portable and need no special temperature. On the other hand, Liquid Medical Oxygen(LMO) needs to be stored and transported in cryogenic tankers.
  • Oxygen from Concentratorsis not as pure as Liquid Medical Oxygen (LMO) which is a 99% pure oxygen. But it is good enough for mild and moderate Covid-19 patients with oxygen saturation levels of 85% or above. However, it is not advisable for ICU patients.
  • Oxygen concentratorsare the easiest alternatives to cylinders but can only supply 5-10 liters of oxygen per minute (critical patients may need 40-50 liters per minute).
  • 氧气浓缩器更昂贵than Oxygen cylinders. But it is largely a one-time investment. Apart from electricity and routine maintenance, there is a little operational cost. While oxygen cylinders incur refilling and transportation costs.

Source:Indian Express


“E-2025 initiative” – WHO Identifies 25 countries with potential to be malaria-free by 2025

What is the News?

WHO has launched the E-2025 initiative. Under this initiative WHO Identifies 25 countries with the potential to be malaria-free by 2025.

疟疾:它是一种由疟原虫寄生虫引起的疾病。它通过感染的女性蚊子蚊子的叮咬来传递给人们。

World Malaria Day:

  • World Malaria Dayis observed on April 25 every year by the WHO.
  • 2007年世界卫生大会第60届会议确定了4月25日World Malaria Day.
  • 2021主题:“Reaching the Zero Malaria target”.

About ‘Zeroing in on malaria elimination’ Report:

  • Purpose: The report provides the progress made by 21 malaria eliminating countries as part of the “E-2020 Initiative”.
    • The E-2020 initiativewas launched by WHO in 2017. The initiative supported 21 countries in their efforts to get to zero malaria cases within the 2020 timeline. The countries were identified by WHO in 2016 as having the potential to become malaria-free by 2020.
  • Findings:根据该报告,8 of the 21 E-2020 member countries reported zero indigenous cases of human malaria by the end of 2020. However, the progress was disrupted due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

About E-2025 initiative:

  • Building on the successes of the E-2020,WHO has launched the E-2025 initiative.
  • 作为这项倡议的一部分,WHO has identified 25 countries that have the potential to eliminate malaria within a 5-year timeline.
  • 国家将收到technical and on-the-ground support by WHOand its partners, in their work towards the target of zero malaria.
  • 作为回报,国家将会审核他们的消除计划annually, participate in elimination forums, conduct surveillance assessments, and share malaria case data periodically.

Source:Down To Earth


印度举办了第五届“香料和烹饪草本委员会法典委员会”第五届会议

What is the News?

香料和烹饪草药(CCSCH)的第五届会议几乎已发发出来。

About Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs(CCSCH):

  • The Codex Committee on Spices and Culinary Herbs(CCSCH)成立于2013年。在Codex Alimentarius委员会(CAC)下,建立了超过一百多个国家的支持。
  • 目的:
    • To develop and expand worldwide standards for spices and culinary herbs.
    • 在标准开发过程中咨询其他国际组织。
  • 东道国:India is the host country.Spices Board India作为组织委员会会议的秘书处。
  • 意义:自成立以来,委员会取得了成功,为香料和草药制定了统一的全球食典标准。

About Codex Alimentarius Commission(CAC):

  • Codex Alimentarius Commission(CAC)was established in 1963. It is an intergovernmental body established jointly by theUN’s Food and Agriculture Organisation(FAO) and the World Health Organisation (WHO)。它是在联合食品标准计划的框架内建立的。
  • 目的:
    • 建立国际食品标准,以保护消费者的健康
    • 以确保食品贸易中的公平做法。尤其ally while promoting coordination of food standards work undertaken by international governmental and non-governmental organisations.
  • 会员资格:委员会的成员对粮农组织的所有成员国和粮农组织副成员开放。对国际食品标准有兴趣的国家可以成为CAC的成员。
  • 资金: The programme of work of the Commission is funded through the regular budgets of WHO and FAO. All works are subjected to the approval of the two governing bodies of the parent organisation.
  • 总部:Rome, Italy.

Source:PIB


“氧气快递”火车 - 铁路放弃了几次费用

What is the News?

印度铁路公司已经决定放弃某些charges on ‘Oxygen Express’ trains. This decision is important due to the increase indemand for Liquid Oxygen来自全国各地的主要医院。

氧气表达:

  • Oxygen Express是一种特殊的火车运输液体medical oxygento states and Union Territories in cryogenic tankers.
  • 它开始满足对液体医疗氧气的高需求,用于治疗冠状病毒患者。

Why Transport of Liquid Oxygen through train?

  • Transportation of oxygen through trains is faster over long distances than road transport.
  • 通过铁路运输需要2天。另一方面,通过这条路运输需要3天。
  • Further, trains can run 24 hours a day but truck drivers need to take halts.

挑战:

  • Oxygenin a cryogenic state is a hazardous chemical. Hence, Railways have to avoid sudden acceleration, deceleration to check pressures in between especially when it is in a loaded condition.

Source:印度教


“UN-ECOSOC” -India Elected to 3 Key Bodies

What is the News?

India has been elected to three key bodies of the UN ECOSOC (United Nations’ Economic and Social Council).

These bodies are the Commission on Crime Prevention and Criminal Justice (CCPCJ), Executive Board of UN Women, Executive Board of the World Food Programme.

United Nations Economic and Social Council(ECOSOC)

  • UN- ECOSOCwas established in 1945. It is one of the six main organs of the United Nations.
    • Other organs are UNSC, UNGA, Trusteeship Council, ICJ, and UN secretariat.
  • Aim:作为讨论国际经济和社会问题的论坛。它还适用于制定向会员国和联合国系统提供的政策建议。
  • Members:安理会由54个成员国组成。Unga将把它们选为三年。
  • Headquarters: New York, United States.

预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会(CCPCJ):

  • 预防犯罪和刑事司法委员会(CCPCJ)is a functional commission of the UN-ECOSOC
  • Purpose: The commission serves as the primary organ that guides the activities of the United Nations. Especially in the fields of crime prevention and criminal justice.
  • Members:CCPJ has 40 member states that are elected by ECOSOC.
  • Headquarters: Vienna, Austria.

UN Women

  • UN Womenis the United Nations entity dedicated to gender equality and the empowerment of women.
  • 联合国大会2010年成立联合国妇女加快全球妇女需求的进展。
  • Members:联合国妇女行政委员会由41名成员组成。
  • Headquarters: New York, United States

World Food Programme(WFP):

  • Both the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) and United Nations General Assembly (UNGA) founded the WFP in 1961.
  • Aim:消除饥饿和营养不良的最终目标是消除粮食援助本身的必要性。
  • 意义: It is a member of the United Nations Development Group and part of its Executive Committee.
  • Members:The Executive Board of WFP consists of 36 states members. The board provides intergovernmental support, policy direction and supervision of the activities of WFP.
  • 资金:来自世界各国政府,公司和私人捐助者的自愿捐款将完全资助WFP的运作。
  • 诺贝尔奖:WFP was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 2020. This is for the following reasons,
    • Firstly,WFP’s contribution in combating hunger,
    • Secondly,Work of WFP towards bettering conditions for peace in conflict-affected areas
    • Thirdly,它作为努力的推动力的作用,以防止使用饥饿作为战争武器和冲突。
  • Headquarters: 意大利罗马

Source:WION


禁止化学武器或OPCW的组织

What is the News?

India’s Comptroller and Auditor General(CAG) GC Murmu selected as an external auditor to Organization for the Prohibition of Chemical Weapons(OPCW). His term will be for 3 years, starting in 2021.

India was also selected as a member of the Executive Council of the OPCW. It is representing Asia Group for another two-year term during the OPCW Conference of State Parties.

关于禁止化学武器的组织(OPCW):

  • opcw.is an intergovernmental organisation and the implementing body for the Chemical Weapons Convention. This convention is in force since 1997 and 193 members.
  • 目标:通过执行“化学武器公约”的规定,实现无化学武器的世界愿景。
  • Objectives:
    • Destroying all existing chemical weapons under international verification.
    • Monitoring chemical industry to prevent chemical weapons from re-emerging.
    • Providing assistance and protection to States Parties against chemical threats.
    • 促进国际合作加强执行“公约”,促进和平利用化学。
  • Powers:
    • The OPCW is authorized to perform inspections to verify that signatory states are complying with the convention.
    • 它还可以进行疑似化学武器攻击的地点和受害者的测试。
  • Members: It has 193 members including India.
  • Headquarters: The Hague, Netherlands.
  • 意义:OPCW于2013年获得诺贝尔和平奖。
  • 与联合国的关系:禁化武组织不是一个联合国(UN)组织。如何ever, by the 2001 Relationship Agreement between the OPCW and the UN, the OPCW reports on its inspections and other activities to the UN through the office of the Secretary-General.

Source:AIR


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