Antimicrobial Resistance may Become a Silent Pandemic

Synopsis:

The challenges posed by抗菌抗性(AMR)要求所有国家全面和协作的方法。他们必须聚集在一起解决沉默的大流行。

Background:
  • Covid 19 exposed the vulnerabilities of health systems across the globe. It took away the lives of more than 3 million people since January 2020.
  • Experts believe that greater destruction would be caused by AMR in the coming years. This calls for taking strong steps at the national and global levels.
What is AMR?
  • 它是细菌,真菌,寄生虫和病毒发展并变得抗性的现象抗菌抗性treatment.
  • The infections persist in the body, increasing the risk of spread to others.
Reasons behind the development of AMR:

主要原因:

  • 滥用医学中的抗微生物– This happens when the proper course of medication is not done or the person indulges in self-medication.
  • Inappropriate use in agriculture– Antibiotics are used to boost the productivity of livestock.
  • Contamination around pharmaceutical manufacturing sites– The untreated waste releases large amounts of active antimicrobials into the environment.
Secondary Reasons:
  • No new antimicrobial developments:在过去的三十年中,没有新的抗生素患者已经进入市场。这是他们开发和生产的激励措施不足的结果。
    • 最近的一份报告从非营利尤相信傻人nd that over 95% of antibiotics in development today are from small companies.
  • Easily Availability: Antimicrobials are easily available as ‘over the counter drugs’ in many countries. This ease facilitates more consumption and development of AMR.
Challenges posed by AMR development:
  • Threat to the health care system:Antimicrobials prevent infections post a routine surgery or cancer treatment.他们的无效削弱了现代卫生系统。
    • The problem is more grave for low- and middle-income countries (LMICs) of Asia and Africa where cheap antimicrobials have significantly reduced the mortality rates.
  • 丧失人类生活:每年最多有6万卢比的死亡人员。据估计,据IT岗位2050年将造成1000万人死亡。
  • 经济福特:The countries would require abundant capital to manage the AMR crisis in the future. As per an estimate, it may cost up to $100 trillion by 2050.
Way Forward:
  • Accessibility:There is a need to ensure better accessibility of antimicrobials. Globally, 5.7 million people die every year because they cannot access drugs for infections that are treatable.
  • Incentivisation:The companies must be encouraged to develop new antimicrobial drugs. In this regard, a multi-sectoral $1 billion AMR Action Fund was launched in 2020 to support the development of new antibiotics.
  • 明智用途:There must be appropriate and judicious use of antimicrobial drugs. Countries can learn from:
    • 秘鲁的患者教育努力减少不必要的抗生素处方
    • EU-supported VALUE-Dx programme这增加了使用点诊断的使用。这导致了谨慎的药物摄入量。
  • 跟踪AMR的传播: Surveillance measures to identify these organisms need to expand beyond hospitals. They should encompass livestock, wastewater, and farm run-offs.
    • 例如,丹麦努力防止在牲畜中使用抗生素的血液患病率降低并提高了农业生产力。
    • Similarly, countries must formulate a dedicated and holistic plan to deal with AMR like India’s National Action Plan for antimicrobial resistance.
  • Global Coordination: International alignment and coordination are paramount in both policymaking and its implementation. The countries can use the Paris Agreement as a blueprint for developing asimilar global approach解决AMR。

来源:印度教