9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 12, 2021

晚上9点

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GS-2

  • 海湾和解
  • Kenneth Arrow’s paradox and why elections are flawed
  • Diplomatic practices
  • 与受益者的对话和审议是福利政策制定的先决条件
  • 支付妇女的国内和护理工作
  • 正式化社区工作者的工作

9 PM for Preliminary examination

事实上

海湾和解

资源-该Hindu

教学大纲 - GS 2 -重要的国际机构,机构和石头 - 他们的结构,任务。

概要 -海湾领导人签署了团结和稳定协议,以结束第41届海湾合作委员会(GCC)峰会在沙特阿拉伯的第41届海湾合作委员会(GCC)峰会上的外交裂缝。

背景-

  • In 2017, Saudi Arabia and its allies [UAE, Bahrain and Egypt] decided to boycott Qatar and imposed a naval, air and land blockade.
  • 卡塔尔被指控太近伊朗并支持激进的伊斯兰群体。
  • 该four countries presented Qatar with13要求作为结束禁运的条件,其中包括 -
      • 关闭Al-jazeera和其他卡塔尔乐队电视网络,
      • 关闭卡塔尔的火星军事基地,
      • 减少与伊朗的外交关系
      • 结束其他国家内政的干扰。

然而,尽管经济成本繁重,卡塔尔并没有比赛。

What are the impacts of 2017 boycott on Qatar?

Qatar showed resilience and manage the economic blockade. Qatar was able to deepen its relations with Turkey and Iran during the embargo, as both countries provided vital support.

  • 第一那When the Saudi and Emirati airspaces were closed,伊朗提供卡塔尔全球连通性
  • 第二,土耳其语部队抵达卡塔尔Iran increased shipments of supplies进口依赖国。卡塔尔也bolstering its ties with Turkeyduring this period, which is eager to play a bigger role in West Asia.
  • ThirdQatar played an important role in the U.S.-Taliban deal并继续举办塔利班代表与阿富汗政府之间的谈判。

沙特阿拉伯及其盟友对卡塔尔的禁运失败了,而GCC成员在沙特阿拉伯签署了一笔交易,以删除卡塔尔的所有制裁,并重新开放其土地,海和空中边界到卡塔尔。

然而,卡塔尔已经达到了很少的让步才能达成和解。通过对其他国家内政的非干预的广泛协议取代了13项具体要求,以确保区域稳定和安全

和解背后的主要原因是什么?

  • 第一那to counter Iran-这一举措主要旨在创造一个区域集团来抵制伊朗,因为海湾的裂缝帮助伊朗。
      • Iran, reeling under U.S. sanctions, got some financial relief from Qatari payouts for using its airspace. Lifting the air and sea blockades, the Saudis and the Emiratis could deny Iran of those funds.
  • 第二那bridging the Gulf between two American allies- 和解也是乔·拜登总统的收到行政管理的统一信号。
      • 通过解决仇恨,沙特阿拉伯将能够在伊朗前面提出更多的联合立场,因为乔拜登正准备重新谈判伊朗核责任。

前进 -

  • Although the Gulf reconciliation is a progressive step, especially in warming relations between Saudi Arabia and Qatar. Saudi Arabia should learn from the mistakes and build ties based on mutual interests and cooperation.

Kenneth Arrow’s paradox and why elections are flawed

资源-该Hindu

Syllabus- GS-2

Synopsis- Theory of Arrow’s paradox and the impact of loss of concentration

Introduction-

  • 所有选举的机制都有缺陷。Mathematician Kenneth Arrow露出了选举的缺陷。
  • 该internet helps the minority voice to instigate a large part of the populace. The recent U.S. presidential election is an example of this.

What is Arrow’s paradox?

定理以Mathematician和Nobel Laureate命名Kenneth Arrow那who demonstrated the theorem in his doctoral thesis in 1950.

他认为,在存在三种或更多选择的选举制度中,一位好奇的悖论发挥作用。少数民族声音的观点可以决定更广泛的选择。他的发现现在被称为箭头的悖论。

例如-

  • A set of population has three preferences in the run-up to an election which pits binary choices against each other – A= go to war or B= Don’t go to war.
  • 选民将分发三条线,如下所示:
    • 少数民族– The hawks, those who want to go to war.
    • 大多数选民,但大致平等分裂。
        1. 鸽子,谁不愿意在任何情况下都去战争。
        2. 除非绝对必要,否则不想去战争的现实主义者。
  • 少数民族hawks have the ability to dictate the outcome by convincing the realists by prevailing on the realists that war is actually needed.
  • 箭头的悖论可能导致选举应该具有可预测的结果,以便成为一个闹剧,因为结果可以享受允许少数派占占有权。

arrow悖论理论如何摇摆我们的培养结果?

人们现在一般在八秒后失去集中度,突出了越来越数字化生活方式对大脑的影响。

  • 该recent events such as命题22.in US elections have proved this phenomenon.

命题22.

  • Uber, Lyft and other gig industries poured money into their ‘Yes on Proposition 22’活动,筹集超过2亿美元,并通过使司机成为符合福利和工作保护的员工来保护其商业模式。
  • Misleading campaigns-58%的超过1100万选民选择凯p drivers classified as independent contractor, without the additional steps needed after that to get to the truth.
  • 该outcome was a defeat for labor unions that had pushed for a state law aimed directly at Uber and Lyft, mandating they provide drivers with protections like minimum wage, overtime, health insurance and reimbursement for expenses.

肯定会有将来会在利用我们缩短的关注跨度以及首次描述的选举选择议程的环境中利用我们的强烈消息来影响选举的尝试。


Diplomatic practices

资源:click here

教学大纲:GS 2

Synopsis:另一方面,印度不愿干涉加德满都和北京的政治动荡正在努力保持尼泊尔执政党的统治。两个国家的立场与他们的传统外国政策截然不同。

Introduction

邻国发生的干预措施是印度和中国外交政策的永久性。

  • 中国对尼泊尔的干预是亚洲及以后的其干预战略的一部分。
  • Big nations like China and India always interfere in other nations but ward off possible threats to their own sovereignty. For example, India countered intensely the Canadian Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s comments on the farmers’ distress.

On what factors does India’s national sovereignty depend upon?

国家主权一直依赖国家通过其广泛的国家权力来保护它的能力。Big nations tend to intervene more, and the smaller ones find ways to manage this through the politics of balancing against their large neighbours.

  • 第一那印度必须仔细管理印度和邻国的国内政治进程之间的不可避免和积极的互动。
      • 积极和直接干预在国内邻国的政治中必须是一个明智的豁免而不是印度区域外交的统治。
  • 其次,分区的苦涩过去留下孟加拉国,印度和巴基斯坦的国内政治内涵,将他们的关系与独特的主权机构复杂化。
  • 第三,the concept of nationalsovereignty and effectiveness of third-party intervention is limited by circumstance。Outside mediations in the domestic politics of neighbours are rarely successful and yield unplanned penalties.

What are the steps to be taken?

即使是最有权势的国家也非常努力,使最小的国家同意做什么是民主治理,少数民族权利和联邦主义等问题。

  • 印度只能鼓励和不强制科伦坡和加德满都to respect the rights of Tamils and Madhesis but given the complex web of linkages across South Asian borders, Delhi can’t avoid dealing with these challenging issues either.
  • India should try to be a dependable partner and reliable friend并且应该致力于加强双边联系“根据互信,共同兴趣,相互尊重和相互敏感度”,该部长由外交部长向斯里兰卡的政治领导人承诺。

前进

  • 德里的努力追求这一议程可以帮助印度管理邻国的多种动感一点。

与受益者的对话和审议是福利政策制定的先决条件

资源:该Hindu

GS2:治理,透明度和问责制,电子治理 - 应用,模型,成功,局限性和潜力的重要方面。

Synopsis:国家和中央政府可以从Rajasthan的良好做法中学习对话和审议在受益者中,政策使仅仅从治理转变为善政。

背景

  • 最近颁布了Farm lawswere passed without any consultation with the farmer community.
  • 即使在良好的原则上进行政策,对于有效的计划实施,consultations and deliberations在法律制作的初始阶段期间需要。
  • If the farm laws were made by taking consultations from the relevant stakeholders especially from the farming community, we could have avoided the ongoing Farmers protest in Delhi.
  • 拉贾斯坦邦的案例,这是与工人团体和民间社会组织咨询的健康传统政策制定的初始阶段和to take continuous feedback from the field to carry out periodic midway course corrections serves as a shining example for effective policy making.

拉贾斯坦邦如何作为有效政策制作的教科书示例?

  • 该example of the implementation of theMahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act (MGNREGA)在拉贾斯坦邦可以更好地说明这一点。
  • Though MGNREGA wages are now directly credited from the central government to a worker’s bank account this system faces the支付拒绝问题。该re are numerous reasons for rejection, for example,
      • 该re are instances where block level data entry operators make errors in entering the account orAadhaar.details of workers.
      • 由于技术问题,有资金不会被贷记的情况,例如issue of ‘Inactive Aadhaar’。This happens when the linkage of the worker’sAadhaar.和their bank account is broken in the software maintained by the NPCI.
      • Sometimes banks are not able to transfer money as the beneficiary account remains

拉贾斯坦政府如何能够解决支付拒绝问题?

  • To resolve payment rejections, therajasthan政府农村发展系has held numerous discussions which resulted in conducting定期讲习班与相关的股权持有人。
  • 通过讲习班工人团体和民间社会组织直接与受害者互动,村级的行政人员到国家级,银行家。
  • 通过持续对话随着受害的工人,他们能够在官员遵循明确的责任,清晰的时间表和监督和议定书中完成详细指导,以解决问题。
  • This has resulted in a significant reduction in payment rejections in Rajasthan. Within a period of 1 year, the Rajasthan government was able to clear ₹380 crore worth of payments to workers that were earlier stuck due to rejections.
  • By resolving the payment issue through对话,审议和持续反馈,政府确保了每个工作的人,按时全额付款
  • 还有另一个案例Jan Soochna Portal如同mgnrega.通过“数字对话”涉及政府官员和众多民间社会组织的政府设计和格式化了每项计划Jan Soochna Portal
  • Jan Soochna Portalwas launched to facilitate T他对信息(RTI)的权利这被诸如此类问题掩盖定义的格式,无法访问
  • 该JSP is a single platform in the公共区域提供超过104个方案的60个部门的信息。jsp制作d无助于所有信息。

Federalism and good governance require constant constructive engagement between people and officials through Deliberation and debate. A constitutionally committed government should listen to the voices of the marginalised before making welfare policies.


支付妇女的国内和护理工作

资源:该Hindu

GS2:中心和国家易受伤害的人口群体福利计划

Synopsis:为国内和护理工作支付妇女不会减少或重新分配他们的负担。它只会导致努力承认他们的努力。

背景

  • Women bear a disproportionately未付国内工作的高负担和care workin India.
  • According to the全印度时间使用调查(2019)data, females bear more than 83% of the burden ofdomestic and care work无论是在泰米尔纳德邦和印度。
  • To end this disparity, recently, Kamal Haasan’s political party,Makkal Needhi Maiam,提出家庭主妇应通过支付在家的支付来获得适当的认可。
  • 该提案产生了好奇心,并重新开放了妇女为国内和护理工作的悬而未决的学术辩论。

拟议的政策可以解决未付护理工作中巨大的性别差异吗?

Evaluation ofMakkal Needhi Maiamparty’s proposal reveals that though it will be a progressive step, it has the risk of furthering the gender disparity in unpaid work within homes.

  • 据经济学家Diane Elson(2017年),公共政策should aim at closing the hugegender gapin无偿国内和护理工作通过'认识,减少和再分配'Triple-R).
  • Makkal Needhi Maiamparty’s proposal only satisfies the first component of Triple-R, that is ‘recognition’.
  • Since it is women who predominantly carry out unpaid domestic and care activities, often at the expense of their employment prospects and health, the monetary reward is a recognition of their contribution to the well-being of the household and the opportunities forgone by women. The proposal appears progressive, for this reason.

However, the proposal also has the potential to increase women’s burden. This is because

  • 第一ly, paying monetary benefits will endorse the social norm that domestic and care work are ‘women’s work’, for which they are being paid.
  • 其次,向女性支付货币福利使得重新分配“无偿工作的负担不可能。这是因为,为国内和护理工作支付妇女将给予男性的权利,即妇女必然会根据经补偿的无偿活动。
  • Instead of incentivising men to participate more in household work and reducing women’s burden by redistributing the responsibility, the current proposal might do the opposite.

支付妇女为国内和护理工作的选举承诺不可能解决减少和重新分配妇女负担的“战略”性别需求。所需要的是激励男性,参加更多,花时间在分享未付的工作方面。


正式化社区工作者的工作

资源:印度快递

GS2:发展过程和发展产业 - 非政府组织,夏尔,各种团体和协会,捐助者,慈善机构,机构和其他利益攸关方的作用。

Synopsis:政府应该努力正规化社区工作人员的工作安格沃迪,阿萨和国家健康使命workersto make them accessible for various社会保障福利such as safety, insurance, risk allowance and fixed wages etc.

背景

  • In India, there are about a lakh阿莎工人那1.3 millionAnganwadi workers和another 1.2 millionAnganwadi帮助者。(社区工人)
  • 目前,社区工作人员被归类为“honorary workers”并且被拒绝了最低工资那leave and other conditions that is available to formal workers.
  • Even in the best paid states, thishonorarium甚至没有接近政府任务最低工资offered to workers doing comparable jobs.
  • Also, the state by preferring to call them as “volunteers “denies the opportunity to recognise their crucial work as护理服务提供商
  • 这导致了两天nationwide strike通过安格沃迪,阿萨和国家健康使命workers demanding safety, insurance, risk allowance and fixed wages during the pandemic

社区工人对社会的重要性是什么?

  • 第一ly, during the COVID-19 the认可的社会健康活动家(ASHA)和Anganwadi工人,女性“志愿者”的作用frontline warriors在对阵大流行的战斗中。
  • 其次,这些社区工人作为连接社区之间的链接和the state machinery. This was very much visible when there was uncertainty and fear of the virus.
  • 第三,社区工作人员的服务至关重要facilitate localised approaches因为它们在草根具有强大的触点而存在问题。

前进的方式是什么?

  • 第一ly, there is an urgent need torecognise Community workers as workers。可以通过实施推荐来完成Parliamentary Standing Committee on Labourto formalise the work of community workers.
  • 第二,识别公共sph的护理工作ere could also help in settling the issue of gendered and unequal division of house work and无偿护理负担

这是国家承认这些妇女的贡献并接受他们作为工人的贡献。承认阿什和安格沃迪志愿者as workers will be a tribute to their contribution during the大流行而且它还给了对结构理解的新开始women’s labour和their status in the labour market leading to性别敏感政策制定


9 PM for Preliminary examination

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事实上:-News Articles For UPSC Prelims | Jan 12,2021

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