9 PM Daily Current Affairs Brief – January 11, 2021

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GS- 2

回覆想象印度的学校教育

生病的美国民主中有哪些问题?

GS – 3

RBI的扩张政策和不可能的三位一体的挑战

Efforts to increase Electric mobility in India

问题在于K-shaped recovery:政府预算如何处理它?


晚上9点初审

事实上

回覆想象印度的学校教育

Source:Indian Express

GS-2:与教育有关的社会部门/服务的发展和管理有关的问题。

概要:我们需要重新想象学校教育系统,以确保所有人的素质教育,并使印度是知识渊博的超级力量。

背景:

    • 目前,学校作为一个机构已被许多专家批评turning into caged jails,为了像工厂一样运行,像企业企业一样运作,迫使课程进入孩子。
    • 在这篇背景下,我们将评估学校系统是否被伟大的人格所设想的方式,我们现在的教育系统中的缺点是什么以及我们如何改进它,以使学校教育包容,知识渊博和作为自我发现的机构。

伟大的个性是如何设想学校系统?

Progressive thinkers have always envisioned “free schools” for children. They always believed that school should be made to fit the child rather than the other way round. For example,

    • Leo Tolstoy.(俄罗斯小说家)本人为他家(Yasnaya Polyana)的贫困农民儿童创立了一所学校,没有任何严格的时间表,家庭作业或体罚。
    • Maria Montessori(The first Italian woman to become a doctor) educational philosophy too emphasised on children’s freedom and choice.
    • rabindranath tagore.在他的古典故事中The Parrot’s Training (Totaakahini)has vehemently criticised the死记硬背学习方法followed in the Indian school system.

印度政府学校有哪些问题?

Government schools in India faces the following challenges,

    • Firstly,the基础设施不佳在政府学校导致屋顶坍塌等实例。
    • 第二,lack of effective governance and monitoring。例如,Children’s falling sick after consuming mid-day meals.
    • 第三,在印度有一个深刻的学校系统分离,无视1966 Kothari Education Commission’s共同学校系统的建议。
    • 佛urth,existing inequality among children’s due to扩大数字鸿沟,穷人无法访问手机,笔记本电脑和互联网连接。
    • 五,缺乏政治意愿to strengthen the government schools in India which can be understood from the point that government is pushing towards privatisation by handing over land and managements to private organisations.

What needs to be done?

我们需要改进以下领域,为年轻一代提供健康的教育。

    • Firstly, we need to improve the教育基础设施通过提供干净的厕所、饮水、图书馆y, a tinkering lab, and a playground.
    • 第二, we need to think on having classes with混合年龄组instead of segregating children by age. This will allow children to learn at their own pace and make learning a fun activity. For example,大卫沃尔堡的吉拉巴州的Neel Bagh学校,卡纳塔克邦, Here, Children’s could study Class V Telugu, Class III English and Class VII math all at the same time.
    • 第三,我们需要识别冠军从政府体系中使用,并将其作为有效的资源人员。这肯定会激励许多教师更好地表现更好,实现卓越。
    • 第四,政府needs to cooperates with best NGO’s likePratham.从全国各地带来最佳实践。
    • Fifth,我们需要设想计划带来成千上万的退休专业人士作为教师,他们将为学习带来几年的实践经验。
    • 第六,当我们重新想象学校系统时,我们必须努力带来更多邻里学习空间作为社区学习的地方。这可以通过利用大型住房社会的社区大厅和创造“活动中心“in each housing society.
    • 第七,我们需要为印度语言建立一个免费档案archive.org.几乎在哪里1.5 million people log in every day. The recent announcement by the government that it will buy bulk subscriptions of scientific journals to make them可供所有人访问is a step in the right direction.
    • Lastly,我们需要在印度德里政府学校的成功,通过改善基础设施(没有臭豆厕所),政府学校已经比私人学校变得更好,从而为教师提供尊严,constituting school management committeesand by involving many good NGOs forinnovating learning methods

我们需要将我们的学校重新定领作为儿童有不同背景类,种姓,宗教,能力可以一起学习并学会照顾和同情的地方。他们也应该接受培训以Excelsoft skillssuch as cooperation, group work,慈悲,人的尊严和多个意见。


生病的美国民主中有哪些问题?

Source:Indian Express

Gs2:发达国家政策与政治对印度利益兴趣的影响。

概要:唐纳德特朗普支持者的骚乱US Capitolseeking to stall President-elect Joe Biden’s certification by Congress personifies the美国腐朽的民主

Background

    • 最近,一个暴力暴徒(忠诚于唐纳德特朗普)试图推翻美国的总统选举,冲动了美国国会大厦,并迫使立法者隐藏。
    • 这种暴力行为表明American democracy is critically ill

What are the reasons to perceive that American democracy is under threat?

据作者称,美国民主遭受了五个障碍。

    • Firstly,美国民主目睹的主要头痛是文化的细目两分类(opposing political parties find common ground through compromise) that was so intrinsic to American politics and kept the system working.
      • Bipartisanship在美国已被取代思想盲文思想建立在A.psychology of hate将竞争对手视为内部的敌人。这种心态特别是无法妥协,共识和难以治愈。
  • 第二,is thepwhich is similar toMax Weber’s concept of charismatic personalityhas created a党派选区
    • A Plebiscitary leader speaks to his followers, directly, bypassing institutions, that are supposed to limit his powers. It is like every person voting on every policy-matter.
    • 例如,由特朗普先生如此建造的意识形态如“make America great again“,“排出沼泽“,”lock her up“,”stop the steal“夸大了申诉的感觉,并创造了一个党派选区。
    • In this type of politics, institutions becomes weaker and locus of power shifts to the political leader.
  • 第三,is theweakening of America’s democratic institutionsby disrupting its checks and balances by Mr. Trump. For instance,
    • Bureaucrats who have opposed his views, have been replaced immediately and media too was supressed by dubbing their reports as假新闻当他们强调他的违法行为时
    • 机构是民主的生命和灵魂他们检查电源的过激行为,社交当选代表到民主政治,体现了规则和惯例来维持私人和公共利益之间的平衡。任何颠覆其机构的国家都不茁壮成长。
  • 佛urth,是政治配方的演变of neo-liberalism资本主义精英仅用于累积财富,而是使非精英感受到这种积累是公共利益的。
    • 这些政治公式为精英规则提供合法性和今天的美国民主已成为教科书示例新自由主义的政治公法。
  • Fifth,is the美国社会的不平等不等,为所有上述问题提供了生命困境。借助特朗普的魅力领导和Vigilante的使用政治政府取得了成功从美国社会不平等问题的真正问题转移了公民。
    • vigilante politics:an organized effort outside legitimate channels to suppress or eradicate any threats to the status quo

American democracy will need to自我审视本身并且需要修复允许的循环孔narcissistic leader,有plebiscitary powerto expose the fragility of its institutions. It needs to reform itself to set a precedent to other nations such that this model of politics,the politics of hate不会在任何其他国家娱乐。


RBI的扩张政策和不可能的三位一体的挑战

概要:RBI需要退出其扩展政策和管理'不可能的三位一体',即资本流入,通货膨胀和汇率。

教学大纲:GS-3,经济

Source:印度教

Introduction

    • RBI在Covid-19之后采纳了非凡的扩张政策。
    • 它积极减少政策利率,以增加市场的流动性。它还为特别令人痛苦的部门提供了目标援助。
    • 但是,现在RBI应考虑退出计划退出扩张政策,以避免宏观经济术语中的任何损失。
    • In this process RBI might face the challenge of managing'不可能的三位一体',i.e.保持门为资本流动开放,同时保持稳定的汇率和限制通货膨胀。

管理“不可能的三位一体”是什么挑战?

Firstly,RBI需要可能面临管理通货膨胀和对经济复苏的支持的困境

    • 过去几个月,通货膨胀高于RBI的目标乐队,预计未来几个月将仍将保持在目标之上。
    • Whereas, MPC is not able to decide against expansionary monetary policy, out of concerns for growth and financial stability.
    • 由于锁定后冬季作物和供应链的标准化,MPC本身预计其本身将软化。

第二,RBI需要考虑一下储蓄者,通货膨胀高的时候提供了低利率。因此,他们的储蓄的价值正在减少。

第三,RBI要求从市场上撤回“过剩”流动性。

    • Banks are routinely depositing trillions of rupees with the RBI is the evidence that the liquidity increase by RBI is not giving the intended results.
    • 太长期流动性风险的错误风险可能导致金融危机。

佛urth,RBI可能面临挑战‘taper tantrums’在后期的舞台上,触发了投资者在市场上的恐慌抛售。

    • Taper tantrum:In May 2013, U.S. Federal Reserve Chairmen announced that they were considering gradually tapering/reducing ‘quantitative easing’.
    • 虽然宣布应该被视为经济恢复的迹象,而是在金融市场开始恐慌抛售。
  • Thus, RBI also need to frame their communication strategy in a way that it doesn’t trigger the panic sell-off.

Fifth,RBI will have to阻止卢比欣赏,面对政策改变。

    • Current Account Surplus this year together with massive capital flows has caused increase in flow of dollar in the system.
    • 它正在为卢比施加向上压力,这些压力已经以实际术语高估了。
    • RBI has already absorbed this year, nearly $90 billion to prevent exchange rate appreciation and to maintain the competitiveness of the rupee.
    • 因此,RBI通过增加通胀来限制控制卢比值的能力。

在即将到来的日子里,鉴于Covid-19后经济状况,管理不可能的三位一体将是一个棘手的挑战。


Efforts to increase Electric mobility in India

Source:印度教

GS3:基础设施:能源,保护,环境污染和降解。

概要:转向印度电动汽车的重要性以及政府如何积极促进这一过程

为印度转移到电动车辆的重要意义是什么?

过渡到电动汽车对印度很重要,不仅它将节省公共资金,也很重要。

    • 电动汽车的进展将使印度可持续因为它有可能减少碳排放和建立自依赖性国内能源部门。
    • 它可以reduce dependence on crude oil并帮助拯救政府金钱外汇。例如,印度是这一点世界第三大石油进口商in terms of value. In 2018–19, India imported 228.6 MT of crude oil worth $120 billion.
    • 除了在经济和环保的选择方案之外,印度的到电动汽车的过渡还将请允许我们改进我们的基础设施
    • 这也会有一个对我们的外交政策产生重大影响随着我们的能源安全依赖性将转变为西亚到拉丁美洲

Sourcing Lithium

In India, In the last two years,lithium imports have tripled from $384mn到1.2美元and its demands are beingfulfilled by imports from China, Vietnam, and Hong Kong.

    • Latin America’s famouslithium triangle阿根廷,智利和玻利维亚包括大约80%的世界探索锂。
    • Currently, India’s majority of trade from Latin America is concentrated on crude oil which includes 14%-20% of India’s total crude oil imports which is likely to change towards Lithium and cobalt.
    • government is looking to buy海外锂储备发展国内电池制造能力。
      • 2019年,一个合资协议签署了三个印度CPSE’s(National Aluminium Company (NALCO), Hindustan Copper Limited (HCL) and Mineral Exploration Corporation Ltd (MECL)) to formKhanij Bidesh India Limited(Kabil)that has the objective to explore战略矿产资产like lithium and cobalt abroad for commercial use and to meet the domestic requirement for battery manufacturers.

What were the steps taken by government to facilitate the shift towards electric vehicles?

With the vision to have 30% electric vehicles plying the roads by 2030 the government of India has taken up the following initiatives.

    • 第一,under theFaster Adoption and Manufacturing of Hybrid and Electric VehiclesandFame 2.0, the government has allocated13亿美元的激励措施for electric buses, three-wheelers and four-wheelers to be used for commercial purposes till 2022, and earmarked another $135 million for charging stations.
    • 第二,Niti Aayog.has proposed for a46亿美元补贴用于电池制造商,以促进国内制造Lithium batteries
    • 第三,In September 2019, government gave its nod to set up a manufacturing unit in Gujarat by Japanese consortium (Suzuki Motor+ Denso+ Toshiba) to venture into the production of lithium-ion batteries and electrodes.

印度政府的先发制人的政策action will not only help the lithium and cobalt industry to grow domestically but also help India to chalk out a long-term solution to清洁我们的城市, build new markets, and技能人员对于“朝着”的新工作Atmanirbhar bharat'


问题在于K-shaped recovery:政府预算如何处理它?

Source-印度快递

Syllabus-GS-3:印度经济 - 增长和发展

概要TheK形恢复的含义和劳动market pressure何w government budget will deal with it?

介绍-  

  • 冠状病毒病vs.Economic Mobility India has broken the link between COVID virus proliferation and mobility earlier and more successfully.
  • 印度的GDP估计对于2020-21表示,预计经济比早年更好rojections.
  • wever,目前的经济复苏是非常有希望的发展之字,并恢复强烈的恢复并置,是确认劳动市场疤痕

印度的目前经济发展是什么? 

  • 工业部门 -The large firms have endured the crisis better and are gaining market share at the expense of smaller firms.
      • 虽然它会增加中期生产力,但它也会增加市场大公司的优势/定价。
  • 就业 CMIE的[监控印度经济中心]劳动与预流血水平相比,市场调查显示,较少的雇用(占用总雇用的5%)。 
      • 这些劳动力市场预测与近期反弹的更尖锐的反弹不兼容,因为这种恢复受到资本和利润,而不是劳动力和工资
  • 家庭部门- H金字塔顶部的陈代看到他们的基本受到保护,储蓄率在锁上期间强制起来,增加了“坦克燃料”以推动未来消费。
      • Meanwhile, households at the bottom are likely to have witnessed permanent hits to jobs and incomes.

K形恢复有什么影响?

K-shaped recovery在经济衰退之后发生,different sections of an economy rec以滞略度不同的速率或大小。k-的宏观含义形状恢复在印度are-

  • 首先,收入问题 -Upper-income households have benefitted from higher savings for two quartersPresent recovery is led by these savings.
      • But lower-income households面对面洛杉矶s of income in the forms of jobs and wage cuts. T他将是一项重复的拖累需求,如果是劳动市场不会更快地愈合。
  • 第二,我ssue of ConsumptionTo the extent that COVID has triggered an effective income transfer from the poor to the rich, this will be demand-hinderingbecause the poor have a higher marginal propensity to consume (i.e.they tend to spend (instead of saving)与富裕的进口更高的边际倾向相比。
      • 消费模式– Passenger vehicle registrations (代理自10月以来,上端消费量增长了约4%,而两轮车已收缩15%。
  • 第三,增加不平等Covid-19Reduces竞争或增加收入和贫穷之间的收入和机遇的机会。
      • 这可能会影响thetrend growth in developing economies by hurting productivity and tightening political economy constraints.

即将到来的预算如何帮助印度处理K形恢复? 

政策needs to look beyond the next few quarters and anticipate the state of the macroeconomy post the sugar rush, for the wellbeing of poor citizens and increase its income level.

  • 第一,政策will look for the私营部门开始重新投资和重新招聘,从而将经济置于更良好的道路上。禁止劳动力市场滞后可以随着制造和服务部门维持。
    • Private investment revival policy may be implemented first for recovery of the private sector.
  • 第二,Ensureexports should benefit越来越多全球性的增长世界获得稳步疫苗。
  • 第三,G5月份投资大型物理和社会 (health and education) infrastructure push. It may provide employment for who洛杉矶t由于Covid而作出的工作。有可能减少不平等。
  • urth, a可靠medium-term fiscal plan will be锚定债券市场并强调遵守宏观稳定性。
  • Lastly,一筹码公共投资必须平衡通过积极的公共资产销售推动和资助

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