下午9点日前事务简报 - 4月30日,2021年

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这是我们今天晚上9点的时事简报

大约9点简介-晚上9点yabo sport 短暂我们打算简化报纸阅读experience. In 9PM briefs, we provide our reader with a summary of all the important articles and editorials from three important newspapers namely The Hindu, Indian Express, and Livemint. This will provide you with analysis, broad coverage, and factual information from a Mains examination point of view.

关于事实- The Factly initiative covers all the daily news articles regarding Preliminary examination. This will be provided at the end of the 9 PM Brief.

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At Leaders Climate Summit, Countries Adopted Net Zero Targets

来源DTE公司

Syllabus:GS 2 – Bilateral, Regional and Global Groupings and Agreements involving India and/or affecting India’s interests.

Synopsis

在气候峰会上,包括美国、英国、日本等国家已通过了国家统一的决议(NDCS)。这是朝着正确的方向迈出的一步,但需要作出更高的承诺,将温升控制在1.5摄氏度以下。

背景

  • The two-day Leaders Climate Summit was hosted by the US virtually.
  • 它是由40多个国家的领导者参加,其中许多国家诉诸新的NDCS目标和气候承诺。

New Targets and Commitments as part of NDCs

  • US:中国承诺到2030年将温室气体排放量比2005年减少50%至52%。
    • The country aspires to attain net zero emissions status before 2050. Also, it committed to double its annual public climate finance to developing countries by 2024.
  • 日本:It has pledged to reduce emissions by 46 per cent from 2013 levels by 2030.
  • Canada:它已向2030年从2005年级别削减40-45%的排放量。
  • EU:致力于致力于将排放减少55%从1990年到2030年。
  • U. K:中国已承诺到2035年将排放量从1990年的水平减少78%。
  • India:它没有宣布任何更新的NDC。然而,印度与美国的新印度气候和清洁能源议程2030伙伴关系达成了共识。
    • It aims to mobilize investments in clean technologies for industry, transportation, power, and buildings.

分析领导气候峰会的新目标

  • 新的50-52%的美国未减少目标比以前的承诺高12%。由于其前一届NDC将达到2030年的38%。
  • Similarly, the targets of Japan, EU, U.K, and Canada are greater than their previous emission targets.
  • U.K的承诺和目标是所有国家中最雄心勃勃的雄心勃勃。
  • 虽然美国提高了承诺,但它根据气候行动跟踪仪(CAT)缺少1.5˚C兼容的2030个目标。甚至缺乏公平股份估计的承诺。
    • 美国的公平份额为2030年低于2005年低于2005年的70%,并通过对发展中国家的支持进一步减少了125%。

遥遥领先

  • 首脑会议使气候恢复了主要经济体的议程和强迫领导者,以面对未来的任务规模。
  • 美国应该将57%-63%的国内目标定为1.5%˚C根据CAT,到2030年兼容。
  • 此外,美国必须坚持公平份额国家数据中心分析的建议。它建议:
    • 2021 - 2013年间气候金融捐款8000亿美元
    • Use of Special Drawing Rights (SDR) of $3 trillion to help developing countries

Rising fiscal deficit and Expenditure Need during Pandemic

来源印度快递

Syllabus:GS 3 – Indian Economy and issues relating to planning, mobilization, of resources, growth, development

Synopsis

The pandemic time demands enhanced government expenditure to support the vulnerable masses and ensuring their survival. Considering this, the government should enhance the spending on physical and human capital formation without worrying about a rising fiscal deficit.

背景

  • The International Monetary Fund in its World Economic Outlook report had raised the growth forecast for Indian economy. The report expected growth of 11.5 – 12.5% in the financial year 2021-22.
  • However, the country is now witnessing a second wave of Covid 19 that demands greater government support for the vulnerable masses.
  • Many experts believe that a deviation from fiscal targets and reduced growth rate is justified under the extraordinary time of Pandemic.

About Fiscal Deficit:

  • 当政府的支出超过其收入时,就会发生财政赤字(FD)情况。政府总支出及其总收入(不包括借款)之间的差异是差异。
  • It is estimated to moderate from 9.5 percent of GDP in FY21 to 6.8 percent of GDP in FY22. The estimation is based on an increase in revenue receipts by 15% and an increase in fiscal spending by 1% in the current fiscal year.

Rationale for raising government expenditure and deviating from FD target

  • 失业率上升:第二次浪潮导致多个州实行封锁和宵禁。这导致经济活动暂停,导致更大的失业。
    • In the previous lockdown of 2020, the unemployment rate increased by nearly 14.8 percentage points, rising to 23.5 per cent in Apr 2020.
  • 住宿货币政策:该政策已经很宽松,可能没有足够的空间进一步提振经济。
    • 自2020年以来,RBI将回购率降低115个基点。通胀水平在经济上升,可能阻止其降低进一步的利率。
    • 尽管如此,如果通胀水平突破6%的上限,印度储备银行可能会提高利率。
  • 提供安全垫:非常时期要求福利国家为其公民提供更大的支持。此外,严厉的措施(如封锁)使得社会保障计划(如MGNREGA)无效。
  • 支持卫生系统:The pandemic has exposed the lacunae of our health system. Significant fiscal support is needed to provide free vaccinations to all.
    • 这是非常需要的,因为更快,更广泛的疫苗覆盖范围的益处极大地超过了其货币成本。
  • Global Scenario:其他国家也在提供重大财政刺激,以重振经济增长,美国就是一例。
    • 该国采取了宽松的货币政策,并采取了巨大的财政刺激措施,以推动其经济增长达到大流行前的水平。

Way Forward

  • The central government should:
    • Enhance the limit of promised food grains under the National Food Security Act. The government recently promised an additional five kg of grain to the 800 million beneficiaries under the Act.
    • 考虑将现金转移到穷人的银行账户
    • Reduce non-essential government expenditures and use them for COVID-related expenditure
  • Further, it may raise additional funds through borrowings from the market. This may worsen FD in the short run but would generate additional growth that may make debt consolidation easier when things normalise.

How to Prevent 3rd Wave of Covid-19?

来源印度教徒报

GS2:与卫生、教育、人力资源相关的社会部门/服务的发展和管理相关的问题

Synopsis:大规模接种疫苗将是控制Covid19的最佳解决方案。然而,为了防止第三波Covid19,采取了如下措施mask-wearing, physical distancing, hand hygiene需要坚持。

背景

  • 来自英国,南非,美国等其他国家的国际经验已经向我们表示有可能在印度重复第二波的可能性。
  • However, preparedness to tackle the second wave was largely ignored.
  • 如果第二波在不采取积极措施来控制扩展,则在第二波回收时,第三波的可能性很高。
  • 因此,印度需要有效地计划遏制第三波的可能性。

如何防止第三波的可能性?

  • Mass vaccination is the right option. It will help achieve herd immunity and will bring the Pandemic under control.
  • 然而,由于以下挑战,为整个人口接种疫苗将需要相当长的时间:
      • Slow pace of vaccination,
      • 缺乏弹性的疫苗供应
      • limited finances with State governments
  • So, along with mass vaccination drive, India needs to follow other methods such as mask-wearing, physical distancing, hand hygiene, ban on mass gatherings to reduce社区传输。例如,
    • According to a study on Beijing households, face masks were 79% effective in preventing transmission when they were used by all household members.
    • Similarly, according to theNational Academy of Sciences,near-universal adoption of nonmedical masks in combination with complementary public health measures could reduce community spread.

如何说服人们戴口罩?

  • 孟加拉国的一项实验性研究提供了一种如何说服人们自愿戴口罩的理解
  • According to the study by Mushfiq Mobarak of Yale University,以下干预措施有助于将使用口罩的人数增加三倍。
      • 提供免费面具和精心设计的教学材料。
      • 提高掩模质量。口罩在炎热潮湿的环境中佩戴应舒适,并配有有效的过滤器。
      • 宗教和社区领袖及志愿者的提醒。

How India can replicate this model to Nudge Mask wearing?

  • First,need to allocate budgetary resource for the cost of supplying free reusable masks
  • Second,需要富有想象力和创造性的交流活动来解释戴口罩的原因以及正确的戴口罩方式。
  • 第三社区一级的领导、村和社区一级的卫生工作者网络应参与卫生运动。

If the country is to reduce the impact of future waves, it is essential that the above measures are put in place.


A Case for State repression on Civil societies

资料来源:印度教徒报

Gs2: Development Processes and the Development Industry — the Role of NGOs, SHGs, various groups and associations.

Synopsis:Telangana government’s decision to ban 16 civil organisations is an act of state repression on citizens demanding state accountability

背景

  • Recently, The Government of Telangana banned 16 organisations under the Telangana Public Security Act, 1992 (TPSA).
  • These 16 organizations include workers’ organisation, women’s groups, students’ groups,Adivasi association groups,civil liberties groups
  • 他们被宣称为“非法结社和‘new front organisations linked to Communist Party of India (Maoist) andurban guerillas.
  • The timing of this notification indicates that the government wants to scare people demanding governmental accountability.

What led to the ban on these organisations?

  1. The activists were involved in highlighting various issues against the State and Central Governments through meetings and rallies.
  2. Besides, they were also demanding the release of leaders who were arrested in theBhima Koregaon case那和‘废除UAPA法案农业法CAA / NRC.’.
  3. 然而,根据1992年《特兰加纳公共安全法》,国家对这些活动人士提出了以下指控,以援引对这些组织的禁令。
    1. ,活动家通过采用各种游击战术来侵袭国家的战争侵入城市地区。
    2. ,他们干扰了公共行政或维护社区生命所必不可少的物资和服务。它相当于公共和平的危险。

为什么禁止这些组织被视为滥用1992年的Telangana公安法案?

  • First,抗议UAPA或寻求废除UAPA本身不能被解释为非法活动。《非法活动(预防)法》因侵犯公民的基本权利而受到许多法院的广泛质疑。
  • Second,由于调查还在进行中,支持释放Bhima Koregaon根据TPSA,被告不能被诬陷为犯罪。
  • 第三那protesting against CAA and farm laws also cannot be dubbed as an unlawful activity.
      • 因为州政府本身并没有在农业法问题上占据一定的立场。
      • More interestingly, the State Legislature had itself passed a resolution against the CAA, the National Register of Citizens (NRC), and the National Population Register.
      • The resolution stated that the CAA violated the constitutional guarantees of equality, non-discrimination, and secularism. Further, it will endanger the lives of vulnerable groups who do not possess adequate documentary proof of citizenship.

前进的道路

  • Telangana state performance to control the Pandemic has been so far very poor. Even the Telangana high court has criticised the state’s response to control the Pandemic as disappointing and failure in governance.
  • 因此,政府应通过有效管理公共卫生危机,努力履行《宪法》第四部分规定的宪法义务。

探索评估学生学习的替代品

来源-印度教徒报

教学大纲-GS 2-与教育有关的社会部门/服务的发展和管理有关的问题。

Synopsis-有必要探索评估学生学习的替代方案,而不是在这个前所未有的情况下持有或推迟委员会考试。

Introduction-

  • The pandemic provides an opportunity to reconsider educational assessments and evaluations.
  • However, the government is considering Postponing or Holding in person board exams.
  • Instead, alternative forms of assessment must be found for promoting students. It’s time to come up with new approaches to evaluate student learning.

与即将到来的董事会考试有关的挑战 -

  • 首先,学生的未来harmed if board exams are postponed-推迟委员会考试将进一步扰乱进一步的课程,其中包括高等教育机构的招生时间表。
  • Second, Student safety-Student gathering during offline board exams is also not a viable option due to rising COVID-19 cases.
  • 第三那The possibility of cheating during online examinations –Online exams are not reliable as most of the students have cheated in exams.

评估学生学习的建议方法是什么?

  • Make academic evaluation more rigorous and sustainable
  • 鼓励学生创造性地写作 -The question paper should be structured in such a way that students critically engaged with the subject and assess their analytical ability to solve questions based on their previous experience and knowledge from the book.
  • Formative assessments throughout the year-Teachers could assess students’ progress through the year. This will make an evaluation and learning much more holistic.
  • 邀请高等教育机构促进网上入学考试。
  • Instead of rote learning, more pragmatic-based learning can be pursued-学术成就是学生进步的主要反映的心态必须改变,学生发展必须在社会,情感和精神增长方面重新定义。

前进 -

To avoid students being stuck in the present model of cramming, rote learning, and fear, it is time to re-evaluate student learning methods. To do this –

  • The government needs to give complete autonomy to educational committees so that they can enforce this reform.
  • 包括高等教育机构在内的教育评估和评估标准。这也可以阻止对外国大学的大规模迁移。

事实:-NEWS upsc prelims的文章|2021年4月30日

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