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List of Contents
Gs3: Important International Institutions, agencies, and fora – their Structure, Mandate (WTO)
- Quick and efficient vaccination is the most appropriate way to achieve global牧群免疫力对抗病毒。
- 但是，遵守TRIPS协议deprives developing and least developed countries of their right to access affordable medical products.
- Hence, countries like India and South Africa requested a temporary suspension of rules under the1995 TRIPS Agreement。
一世ndia and Patent laws
- 一世ndia adopted the colonial-era laws that allowed for pharmaceutical patents.
- But in 1959, a committee chaired by JusticeRajagopala Ayyangarobjected to this on ethical grounds.
- The committee stated that access to drugs at affordable prices is affected due to patent protection for pharmaceutical drugs.
- 一世t also found that foreign corporations are misusing patent laws to avoid competition and to maintain monopolies. Further, lack of competition has given rise to exorbitant rates charged for essential medical drugs.
- With this backdrop,the Patents Act, 1970，被通过了。它提供了仅仅通过索赔来保护那and it helped to remove monopolies in pharmaceutical drugs.
- For instance, drugs that reduce AIDS deaths in developed nations were made non-accessible for the rest of the world due to high costs.
- However, generic versions of these medicines manufactured in India helped to lower the price of AIDS drugs.
- But, with the advent of the TRIPS agreement in 1995, patent laws were again strengthened. Under WTO’s TRIPS agreement, countries violating patent laws are penalized by sanctions.
- 专利权是一种专有权,国家给了to an innovator to make, use and sell an inventive product or process.
- Patent laws are usually justified on three distinct grounds:
- One, it is thenatural and moral right索赔控制他们的发明的人民。
Why the above arguments are refuted?
- Second,专利是唯一可用的手段to promote innovation undermines other alternatives to promote innovation. For instance,
- According to famous economistJoseph Stiglitz， 这prize fundsfor medical research can replace the patent system.
- 一世t will be more efficient and more equitable as public funds will incentivize research while ensuring affordable medicines.
TRIPS regimeis an example of inequitable existing world order. There is a need for a global collective action to replace the existing rules that placethe right to access basic healthcarein danger.
Gs2: mechanisms, laws, institutions and Bodies constituted for the protection and betterment of these vulnerable sections.
- 一世ndia slips 28 spots on the 2021全球性别差距指数released by世界经济论坛。
- Currently, India ranks140thrank among 156 countries. In 2020, India’s rank was 112th among 153 countries on the index.
- 一世ndia was the 3rd worst performer in South Asia, after Afghanistan and Pakistan. Whereas Bangladesh topped the list in the South Asia region.
Why India’s rank slipped to 140 from 112thin 2021?
- 政治参与下降：the share of women ministers has declined sharply from 23 to 9 percent.
- Declining labour force:印度妇女的劳动力参与从2020年的1999-00 00％的34.1％下降到21％。
- 一世ncreasing crime against women:According to the国家犯罪记录局data, nearly 88 rapes occurred daily in 2019, with Dalit women being more vulnerable.
- Arbitrary use of State power to curtail women’s participation in social movements:例如，对Disha Ravi，Nodeep Kaur，Hidme Markam的逮捕和煽动罪行。
What are the other reasons for the increasing gender gap in India?
- Son meta preference:As per UNFPA estimates, each year India loses more than 46 million “missing women” due to misuse of ultrasound technology for sex-selective abortion.
- Glass ceiling effect：Barriers for women to reach higher positions in corporates and public sector companies. India has only 15 percent of women as a board of directors.
- Lack of educational opportunities due to Increase in Child marriages:According to国家家庭健康调查2020那reveals that child marriages have increased since the previous survey in 2015-16.
- Sexual harassment in the workplace:for example,metoo运动有暴露了妇女在工作场所的脆弱性。
- Unpaid care work:As per the2019 NSSO time-use survey那一世ndian women’s daily work is almost 10 times more than men’s on unpaid domestic chores.
- Gender Digital divide:Though more than half of women have a mobile phone, only a third have access to the internet.
- 一世ncrease in domestic violence:由于缺乏经济独立性
While other countries such as Bangladesh, Nepal, Rwanda are making serious efforts to close the Gender gap, India’s effort in this direction is poor. India needs to understand that Economic growth is not possible without the empowerment of women. The East Asian growth “miracle” was associated with large increases in the working women population.
教学大纲：GS - 印度及其社区
Synopsis:一世ndia Pakistan Agreement on Consular Access is inactive. Hundreds of Indian fishermen have been suffering in Pakistan’s prisons for years with no end in sight.
An Indian fisherman named Ramesh Taba Sosa is the recent victim of an inhuman and crooked system involving India and Pakistan. Sosa died in a prison hospital in Malir Jail, Karachi, Pakistan and his mortal remains have not been returned yet.
- There is no guarantee when his family in Nanavada, in Gujarat, will be able to conduct his last rites.
- 索萨美国银行在2019年5月被逮捕时,他钓鱼t entered Pakistani waters. His sentence in the Pakistani prison ended on July 3, 2019, but neither he was sent back home nor he was given consular access till his death. This is an issue of basic human rights.
- 一世n 2008, India and Pakistan signed the涉及领事通路的协议。协议第4节states that the governments of both nations would provide consular access. This has to be provided within three months to citizens of another country, under arrest, detention, or imprisonment in the other country.
- Section 5 of the agreement规定，在确认国家地位和完成判决的一个月内，两国政府都应该释放和退回人员。
- More than 300 Indian fishermen are in Pakistan拘留所in Malir jail. The nationality of a person cannot be confirmed without consular access, which is not easily available. There are several instances in which both countries did not confirm nationality for as long as 18 months.
- Other similar cases:
- 一名渔夫命名Vaaga Chauhan died in Pakistani custody2015年12月，他的凡人于2016年4月仍然达到了他的村庄。
- Latif Qasim Sama accidentally crossed over to Pakistan in 2018. He was arrested and his sentence ended in April 2019. Latif didn’t get consular access. Ismail Sama13年后从巴基斯坦监狱返回for the same mistake.
- Fishermen from the Saurashtra region of Gujaratoften get arrested when they accidentally cross over into Pakistani waters.
- Dharam Singh from Kashmir had unknowingly crossed over in 2003. He在巴基斯坦监狱度过了18岁。他后来受到了14年的监禁。这在去年12月结束，但他本月到达了家。
What should be done?
- 一世N 2007，印度和巴基斯坦成立了一个joint judicial committee on prisonersincluding four retired judges from both sides. The committee used to assemble twice a year to meet prisoners. It facilitated many repatriations.
- However, itslast meeting was held in 2013 after which it was stopped. In 2018, efforts were made to restart it, but Pakistan is yet to appoint judges or call for a meeting.
- The committee should be revived at the earliest. Delay is costing lots of lives.